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Wednesday, 10 July 2019

What is Gram Sabha


We have a federal system of government in our country where power is divided among state, central and local governing bodies. We have a Parliament house called Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha at the central level and Vidhan Sabha at the state level.


When it comes to towns or villages we have Municipal Corporation and Gram Sabha respectively.
The blogs aim at talking about the local government and its functions at Village level. I am thankful to Mr. Noorul Hassan the social activist for all the information he had supplied to me. Mr. Hussan has been working on PESA for the past 6 years in Bastar region. I am sharing exactly what he told me about the Gram Sabha.

Name of Gram Sabha comes to our mind first when we talk about the
administration in the village later other names like Village Panchayat and ward panch holds their place.

What is Gram Sabha? 


It is an assembly of the people living in particular village. They discuss, decide and give suggestion in the assembly that takes place periodically. One of the most striking features of the Gram Sabha is that its decisions are unavoidable. In other words decision taken in the Gram Sabha cannot be annulled. Gram Sabha holds same position in the village as the Parliament House has in the central and Vidhan Sabha in the state. Let’s check out what are functions and composition of the Gram Sabha.


To know more about Indian Government Please click the link below

Parts of Indian Government


Who can be the member of the Gram Sabha?


When it comes to the area of V schedule, every villager who are 18 years of age and whose name is enrolled in the electoral list can be member of the Gram Sabha irrespective of caste, creed and religion. The villagers are better aware of their problems and hence together they discuss and resolve the matters related to their village. The representative of the Gram Panchayat is elected by the members of the Gram Sabha.  Members of the Gram Sabha have to be the resident of the village. The government officials can take part in the proceeding of the Gram Sabha but they can’t be involved in the process of taking decision over any matter. However, they can share government schemes to facilitate the villagers.

When does the Gram Sabha take place?


Gram Sabha can be convened at any time as per the need of the hour but there are certain dates when Gram Sabha should inevitably held. 

They are:
Within the week of 2 October
Within the week of 23 January
Within the week of 14 April and
Within the week of 20 August

However the adult-villagers can convene Gram Sabha at any point of time but following points need to be taken care of

One third members of the Gram Sabha give written demand.

The application should be given to the Panchayat Scretary.

Following this, the Sarapanch has to convene Gram Sabha within 30 days of the demand.

Venue:-


Where in the village can Gram Sabha be organized?
The venue of the Gram Sabha should be organized to a place which can be easily accessible to the all villagers. Thus it should be held at the center of the village to ensure maximum participation. But it shouldn’t be conducted within the four walls or closed room. Most of the time, it is organized in a room which is neither encouraged or by the rule.

What is the quorum of the Gram Sabha?


One third of the total population of the village can form Gram Sabha and the one third of total member of the Gram Sabha should be woman. Let’s understand the fact with an example;
A particular village has 1000 including men and women whose names have in the electoral list.  

They can form the Gram Sabha but they need to have one third of them means 333 and one third of 333 is 111 they should be woman
Means participation of women are equally important in the Gram Sabha. Thus the Gram Sabha of the particular village mentioned should at least have 444 people including men and women.
And area without V scheduled is something different in this regard. Here only one –tenth population of the villagers of electoral list is enough. 

The president and power of the Gram Sabha
One who is elected as the president of the Gram Sabha should be resident of the same village. The president can either be man or woman but he should be well-familiar with the happening/ problems of the village.

The gravity of his post holds its weight as the Chief Minster in the state. He decision is final in dispute and can’t be challenged or infringed.

Work and responsibility of Gram Sabha


To decide what is good and plausible for the village.
Decisions are taken keeping the tradition and value of the village.
To find out the people who can be given advantage of the government schemes in the village so that the poorest can avail them.
To select or manage system of the market in the village
To manage issues related with land, forest and water.
To track the budget of social audit and other social activities of the village
To provide land to the government for development of the village like the one it has been done in case of TATA and NMDC here.

Gram Sabha also encourage down-trodden to raise their voice for the betterment of the village. Thus it is for the village, to the village and by the village.

Please Read about Gram Sabha in Hindi
click the link below: 




  





Sunday, 30 June 2019

How to improve English


More than 25 years have passed since I started teaching English to young minds. Before I move further, I must state that the area (Bastar region) I belong to is known as backward in terms of education, knowledge and approach.

Now, the state government (Chhattisgarh) is making every possible effort to teach the students English with a view to competing with others living across the country.

Basic English is really a challenge to all the teachers as it has plenty of queries to be answered.

This blog aims to talk about the way which I understand is the finest way to learn English. There are three formulas (Mantra) following which one can learn not only English but also any language on the earth. 
They are-

To listen

To Speak

To Read

And

Write

Mantra to learn English

One can prioritize them as per the need and drawback one feels. For example;
If you are weak at pronouncing words you must start from third points (i.e. to read) irrespective of the facts you are pronouncing them wrong or right. While listening you can remove your problems in pronouncing words. 

This practice can be termed as jowl-exercise and I understand this comes first for those who want to learn how to speak English.

While others may start from LISTENING first if they feel they can’t understand how the language is spoken.
Well, the priority of the points can vary as per the need and demand of the students.

But long and short of it is that one must speak-listen, read-write. Scholars say-you can’t learn how to swim unless you get into the water. Similarly, you cannot learn how to speak unless you follow the points mentioned above. I don’t know whether you agree with me. But it’s a fact.

To know another one in Hindi on the Same Topic, please click the link below:

English Kaise Seekhe?


In the course of my teaching and learning, many have made comments that one must have an ambience around oneself to learn the language.

I entirely wouldn’t agree to it as it is up to to the learner who could create the ambience of his choice. I am born and brought up under typical Hindi speaking ambience and most of my teacher used to speak local dialects to make the stuff clear when I was in school. However, I learnt and I didn’t go to any coaching classes as I see the present generation is doing to learn it.

 Another mantra is that one must keep thinking about the dialogues what he is supposed to speak in one’s native language.


As per the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) certain words are pronounced in a set format.
Phonetics hassles 


Let’s take an example of the letter “U” and find out the way it is being pronounced.   
They either “ o̅o̅ “ or  ŭ” and “ə”
Now, the questions which beginners often asked are that
“Why are PUT, CUT and BUT pronounced in a different way when there is a difference of just one letter e.i. ‘P’ and ‘C’ or “B”?

We have been asked plenty of such questions based on the phonetics and pronunciation when I had spared little time at Jawanga in district Dantewada. 

Please read my blog “Travel from Dantewada to Sukma” for details.


 There are so many such queries that need to be answered. Experts say all comes down to the knowledge of phonetics. As you go on reading, listening and speaking you would come to know about their pronunciation.


There are a few suggestions from scholars. They are as under:- 


  • Read whatever you catch hold of Like books, magazines, booklet, pamphlet, bills advertisements, sale papers, and keep a copy of the dictionary with you. 
  • Make it a point to read at least one page per day of them, that's a good start for the beginners. Try to look up word-meaning and make sentences of your own using them.
  • Check all English news to see how they present the same news in a different way. Try to grasp their style of making sentences to learn the syntax.  
  • Then, begin to speak at intervals. I believe the translation of books will help you a lot. 


Slowly you will pick up good English. 



I hope this blog on learning English is helpful to the beginners

Till the next blog

See you soon !  bye bye!

Please Do read my next blog on Nursing; One of the promising career







  

Wednesday, 26 June 2019

Emergency Numbers in India

112 के बारे में 

आप चाहे घर पर हों या बाहर पैदल हो या किसी वाहन पर अगर आप संकट में आ जाते हैं और आपको लगता है आपके जान माल को खतरा हो गया है तो निश्चित ही पुलिस जगदलपुर शहर यानि बस्तर में है।
आपकी मदद के लिए वहां पहॅुच जाएगी । आपको बस इतना करना है कि अपने मोबाईल या लैण्ड लाईन अन्य किसी फोन से सिर्फ 112 डायल कर करना है। ये सेवा देश के 16 राज्यों और केन्द्र शासित प्रदेशों  में जारी है। जिनमें हमारा छत्तीसगढ़ भी है। छत्तीसगढ़ मंे यह सेवा फिलहाल 11 जिलों में हैं । छत्तीसगढ़ के जिन जिलों  में ये सेवा है वे जिले है। रायपुर,बिलासपुर,राजनांदगांव, कबीरधाम,दुर्ग महासमुंद, कोरबा, रायगढ़, सरगुजा, जांजगीर-चांपा एंव

आईए जानते है। इस सिंगल लाईन हेल्पलाईन सर्विस के बारे में 

इससे पहले भी किसी भी प्रकार की विपत्ती से निपटने के लिए सहायता की खतिर कुछ नम्बर होते थे वे सभी अलग-अलग होते थे वे इस प्रकार थे
अस्पताल या एंबुलन्स के लिए -108, 
पुलिस सहायता के लिए -100,
महिलाओं की सहायता के लिए -1090 तथा 
आग या फायरब्रिगेड सेवा के लिए- 101 
अब इन सभी सेवाओं के लिए सभी नम्बरों को एक बना कर 112 कर दिया गया है। इस अर्थ यह भी नहीं है कि पुराने नम्बर खत्म कर दिये गये है वे सभी नम्बर भी जारी है और लगातार सेवा में हैं ।

अब सवाल ये है कि नम्बर तो कई होते है या हो सकते थे  

मगर 112 ही क्यो? 


इस नम्बर की शुरूआत तब हुई थी जब हम किसी नम्बर को डायल करने के लिए रोटरी टाईप फोन यानि घुमाने वाले फोन का इस्तेमाल करते थे । और 112 एक ऐसा नम्बर होता था जिसे घुमाने के लिए ज्यादा रोटेशन की जरूरत नहीं पड़ती थी । खैर अब तो पुश बटन और टच स्क्रिीन वाले फोन आ चुके हैं । इसमें भी 112 पुश  या टच करने में कम समय लगता है और आसानी होती है। 1972 में यूरोपियन कान्फ्रेन्स आॅफ पोस्टल एण्ड टेलीकम्युनिकेशन एडमिनिष्ट्रेशन ने 112 को पहली बार अपनाया था। 
खास बात यह है कि यह नम्बर फोन लाॅक होने के बावजूद भी सम्पर्क किया जा सकता है। 

कौन-कौन सी आपात सेवाओं के लिए फोन किया जा सकता है। 

  • आप कहीं  है और आपने किसी सड़क दुर्घटना को देखा जिसमें कुछ लोगों को चिकित्सकीय सहायता की आवश्यकता है तो आप  इस नम्बर पर सम्पर्क कर सकते हैं । एम्बुलेंस वाहन तत्काल पहूॅच जाएगा। 
  • आप घर के बाहर या घर के अंदर हैं और आपको अपनी जान का खतरा नजर आ रहा है , आपको तत्काल पुलिस सेवा की आवश्यकता है तो ये नम्बर आपके लिए काफी मददगार साबित होगा। 112 डायल करें पुलिस आपकी सुरक्षा के लिए आ जाएगी । 
  • इसी प्रकार कोई अग्नि कांड होता है तो फायर ब्रिगेड बुलाने के लिए भी इन नम्बरों का इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है। 
  • महिलाओं के लिए यह नम्बर एक प्रकार से सुरक्षा ढाल का काम करता है । यदि उन्हें कही असुरक्षित महसूस हो या उन्हें लगे कि उनकी जान को खतरा हो तो वे इन नम्बरों पर काॅल करके सहायता प्राप्त कर सकती है। 

मगर ध्यान रखें


इन नम्बरों का मजाक न बनाएं और न हीं इसे मजाक करने के लिए डायल करें वरना आप पर कानूनी कार्यवाह हो सकती है। क्योंकि  आपके मजाकिया काॅल को रिसीव करने में Operator  किसी जरूरत मंद का फोन नहीं ले पायेगा  जिस पर वास्तव में विपत्ति आयी है। 
इसीलिए इस नम्बर पर अति विपरित या विषम परिस्थति में ही काॅल करें जब आप मुश्किल में है या आपके जान माल को कोई नुकसान होने वाला हो।


Zomato In Bastar


खास बात यह है कि ज्यादातर यूरोपीय देशों में 112 नम्बर ही इमरजेंसी हेल्पलाईन नम्बर है । अमेरिका और कनाडा में भी यही नम्बर आपतसेवा में डायल किये जाते हैं ।  अतः दुनियां में कही भी आप हों ये नम्बर आपके हितैशी और सच्चे मददगार है। जल्द ही भारत पूरे राज्यों में यह नम्बर काम करने लगेगा। फिलहाल यह अभी 16 राज्यों और केन्द्र शासित प्रदेशों में है। 

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What is Gram Sabha